You can refer to things you and your conversation partner can see by using demonstrative adjectives along with a common noun or by using a demonstrative pronoun.
Different demonstrative adjectives or pronouns are used, depending on where the item is in relation to the speaker and the listener’s location.
If the item is located near the speaker but not near the listener, use こ(ko)-series. (kono, kore, e.t.c)
If it is near the listener but not near the speaker, use そ(so)-series. (sono, sore, e.t.c)
If it is far from either of them, use あ(a)-series. (ano, are, e.t.c)
ど(do)-series(dono, dore, e.t.c) question words.
|こ||この kono + noun|
|そ||その sono + noun|
|あ||あれ ano + noun|
|ど||どの dono + noun|
|こ||これ kore||ここ koko||こちら kochira|
|そ||それ sore||そこ soko||そちら sochira|
|あ||あれ are||あそこ asoko||あちら achira|
|ど||どれ dore||どこ doko||どちら dochira|