Demonstrative words

Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns

You can refer to things you and your conversation partner can see by using demonstrative adjectives along with a common noun or by using a demonstrative pronoun.


Different demonstrative adjectives or pronouns are used, depending on where the item is in relation to the speaker and the listener’s location.

If the item is located near the speaker but not near the listener, use  こ(ko)-series. (kono, kore, e.t.c)

If it is near the listener but not near the speaker, use そ(so)-series. (sono, sore, e.t.c)

If it is far from either of them, use あ(a)-series. (ano, are, e.t.c)

ど(do)-series(dono, dore, e.t.c)  question words.

Demonstrative adjectives
この kono + noun
その sono + noun
あれ ano + noun
どの dono + noun


Demonstrative pronouns
これ kore ここ koko こちら kochira
それ sore そこ soko そちら sochira
あれ are あそこ asoko あちら achira
どれ dore どこ doko どちら dochira